Clients: County of Los Angeles Department of Beaches and Harbors, Various Members of the Petroleum Industry

Geotextile armor has proven to be appropriate for projects in remote areas that lack economical sources of quarrystone, and for projects with limited design lives. Since 1980, Coastal Frontiers personnel have undertaken concept development, hydraulic model investigations, prototype testing, and end-of life removal for a wide variety of geotextile armor systems ranging from small sand bags to large sand- and grout-filled mattresses. Applications have included emergency protection for structures on Southern California beaches and man-made islands in Alaska with service lives as long as 20 years.


  • Quantification of sand bag stability and runup characteristics through large-scale hydraulic model testing

  • Design of underlying geotextile filtration panels to speed installation, enhance stability, and reduce risk of fill loss for geotextile armor

  • Development of filling methods, lifting mechanisms and placement methods for sand bags as large as 6.5 tons

  • Design of secure closures for sand bags

  • Development of long-life fabrics with an intended Arctic service life of 40 years

  • Design of bag retention systems to prevent the loss of damaged units into the water column

  • Development of removal techniques suitable for use at the end of the geotextile armor service life